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- Injection Molding Undercuts Explained
Injection molding refers to the manufacturing process of injecting the molten material into the mold to produce parts of various shapes and sizes. At the same time, injection molding materials may incorporate but are not limited to metals, elastomers, ceramics, and most usually thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. However, the topic will swirl around plastic injection molding in this article, specifically covering the context of plastic injection molding undercuts, along with some standard vocabulary typically associated with molding plastic parts with undercuts. Vocabulary Core: A protrusion that forms a plastic part's inner surface or counterpart – the male side of the part. Cavity: A void that forms a plastic part's outer surface – the female side of the part. Parting Line: The parting plane where two halves of the injection mold meet. Slider (Side Action): It is a side action that converts the vertical movement of the mold opening/closing into the horizontal direction. Shutoff: Shutoffs use drafted walls sealing against drafted walls to eliminate the requirement of post-molding machining or removing functional geometry. Bump-off: The slight undercut in part design that can be securely eliminated from a straight-pull mold without side actions. Lifer: It is used to form the internal undercuts of an injection-molded plastic part. It also works for the ejection function. Draft: The draft is a taper applied to the part faces while developing parts. Fusible Core: Fusible cores are helpful when demoldable cores are difficult to use to mold internal cavities and undercut when injection molding the part. Ejector: The ejector system in plastic injection molding is used to forcefully push and eject the final solid parts or samples out of the mold. What Is Undercut In Injection Molding? Undercuts can be characterized as any protrusions or recessed zones of a part parallel to a plastic injection mold's parting line, prohibiting the ejection of the part from the mold. There exist several major types of undercuts, and these are: 1. External undercut 2. Hole 3. Internal undercut 4. Radial undercut 5. Threaded undercut External undercuts are located on the outside of the part, while interior undercuts remain on the inside of the part. Threaded undercuts occurs when threaded part is molded and usually it requires unscrew it to eject out. Holes and radial undercuts originate when some through holes are needed and must be placed in parallel to the parting line of the mold. In any case, undercuts can be molded, but they need a side pull or side action, being an additional part of the mold that moves independently from the two halves. Furthermore, these undercuts can upsurge the cost of the molded part because of an additional 15-30% cost of the mold itself, increased cycle time, and the complexity of the injection molding machine. Purpose of Undercuts in Plastic Injection Molding The following are some of the general purposes to use undercuts in plastic injection molding: Creating interlocking or snap & latch features and acquiring side holes or openings and ports for button and wiring features. Gaining control of vertical threads and barb fittings utilized in medical devices and providing threaded and customized inserts that are not in the drawn line. Coring out thick and impenetrable sections not secured by the core and cavity alone. Consequently, it helps reduce the chances of sink and warp. How to Optimize Part for Injection Molding (Avoiding Undercuts)? Redesign and upgrade the part to avoid undercuts whenever possible since they add to the mold's complexity, maintenance, and overall cost. Minor part design modifications may help prevent undercuts in the mold; it is simply a matter of choosing the proper workaround for the given part. Here are some ways to optimize the part to avoid undercuts in injection molding: Hole to Slot. Through holes or slots can be added through simple modifications in the sidewall of the mold, instead of a side-action mechanism. Creating a hole or slot in the mold is feasible to help eject the part without hooking; otherwise, the part might stick in the mold. It considers the metal in the mold to move across the part's hole and appropriately develop the underside of the undercut. Stripping. Similarly, stripping undercuts can benefit when the feature is sufficiently flexible to deform over the mold during the ejection process. When using stripping undercuts, ensure they are away from stiffening features (ribs and corners) and have a lead angle of 30-45 degrees. Stripping undercuts are discouraged in parts produced using fiber-reinforced plastics. On the other hand, more flexible plastics are acceptable. Moving a Parting Line. The most straightforward way of managing an undercut is to move the mold's parting line to overlap it with the part feature and modify the draft angles accordingly. In addition, this arrangement is appropriate for various designs with undercuts on an outside surface. The limitation of the parting line placement depends on the material flow, geometry, and other characteristics of the part. Shutoffs – Telescoping Shutoffs. Telescoping shutoffs, otherwise called sliding shutoffs, refer to another common injection molding technique and are frequently used to develop clip- and hook-style mechanisms. These are typically utilized for locking together the molded product's two halves and, much of the time can help eliminate the need for undercuts. Essentially, the telescope gets machined into the mold's one half and stretches out into the contrary side during mold operation while shutting off specific features. How To Deal With Undercuts After Part Is Fully Optimized? Even if the part is fully optimized, there may come situations when undercuts are unavoidable. In that situation, here are three of the ways how to deal with injection molding undercuts: Hand-Loaded Inserts A hand-loaded machined insert is embedded into the mold to avoid molten plastic from streaming into these areas. When the cycle is complete, the part gets ejected with inserts, where an operator is needed to take them out with the part for further utilization. Nevertheless, this manual intervention extends cycle time somewhat, in contrast with side actions that may run automatically. Bump-offs If there exists a mild undercut, one can make an independent insert bolted into the mold. During ejection, the plastic momentarily extends over the insert but then resumes its required form. The bumpoff should be smooth with appropriate radial dimensions – the shape should not be too radical – and the material should be sufficiently flexible that it may slip past the bump with no tearing. Side-Actions, Sliding Side-Actions and Cores (Angled Pin Slide) A perpendicular side-action is suitable for round and hollow parts, and the mold gets split horizontally along the part's long axis. Once the molding cycle starts, the mold halves close together. The side-action slides on an angled pin through hydraulic actuators at the same speed to be correctly positioned simultaneously. Then again, when the molding cycle ends, and the mold opens, the side action slides on the angled pin at a similar speed until the side action is adequately withdrawn to allow the undercut to disengage from the part when ejected. Collapsible Cores Collapsible cores produce plastic parts with internal undercuts as an alternate method. These cores get segmented with flexible elements collapsing inward during the initial ejection while releasing the internal undercut. Once collapsed, the part is easily pushed out of the core in the second phase of ejection. Similar to unscrewing molds, collapsible cores can produce threaded closures and fittings. However, dissimilar to unscrewing molds, the collapsible core molds can also create parts with internal features, including O-ring grooves, dimples, and holes in the sidewall of a piece. Ultimately, it eliminates the requirement of external side action. Collapsible cores can be availed as pre-manufactured "blanks" in multiple sizes. Larger standard cores have diameters from 25mm to 90mm while offering a collapse of 1.20–3.75mm per side, which refers to the permissible depth of undercut feature. Smaller cores with diameters of 13–24 mm can also be availed with collapse distances of 1.32–1.50mm per side. These smaller "mini-cores" can only be used when the thread or undercut is interrupted – not continuous through 360°. Lost or Fusible Core Molding Several processes may allow the production of highly complex parts. E.g., parts with large internal undercuts, which cannot be released with the help of traditional injection molding technologies, can be produced using the fusible/lost core molding procedure. Typically, the fusible core molding process makes various parts, including valves, tennis rackets, pumps, and automotive air intake manifolds. Although the process becomes capital intensive, it has the ability to produce complex parts in one go. Eventually, it eliminates the cost and quality issues of secondary operations. The fusible core molding process starts when a die-cast or gravity-cast metal-core is loaded into the injection mold. The rest of the process goes the usual way, meaning that the tool closes, and the plastic part gets molded onto the cast core. When the mold opens, the core and part are ejected together. A replicated core gets loaded into the tool for the following cycle. After molding, the core, which is usually a metal alloy with a low melting point, is melted from the plastic part. Melting can be carried out using several methods. But the hot liquid inductive heating method is chosen since the core can be dissolved quickly, and the oxidation potential of the metal is minimized. The metal core melting can be achieved using various methods, in particular: Circulation of hot fluid through the core (for hollow cores). Immersion of the part and the core in a bath of hot fluid (swimming pool method). Inductive heating (will probably cause oxidation of the metal). Inductive heating in a hot liquid. Once the core gets melted, an inspection process of the parts is accomplished using metal detectors to ensure complete fusion. Afterward, the metal alloy is recast to produce temporary cores for subsequent molding cycles.
- Injection Molding Tool
Plastic injection molding is a technique of manufacturing where a fixed frame known as mold or matrix (also named as tool) is used for shaping liquefied by heat polymers or elastomers. The contemporary injection molding processes constitute plastic injection molding, insert molding, 2K molding, metal injection molding and over-molding. Injection molding occurs when plastic materials molten by heat are injected into the mold cavities, cooled, and solidified to attain molded products. It is an effective and most appropriate technique for large-scale manufacturing with intricate shapes and variety of materials. What Is A Mold (A Tool)? A mold appears like a metal box that is hollow from the inside (has a cavity), in which the molten plastic is injected with high pressure to take the desired shape of the plastic part produced. The cavity is a replica of the molded part. Mold is placed inside the molding machine which controls the injection stages: clamping, injecting, cooling, ejecting. Injection molding tools also can be standard (classified by Plastics Industry Association (SPI) standards) and non-standard (e.g. micro molds used with Babyplast machines). The main difference between the two is the size of the molds and the complexity. Standard molds have many more components and thus are more expensive and difficult to make, however, in general, the mold (tool) mainly consists of: Mold Cavity And Core Sides - Also known as injection side – plate A and ejector side plate B. Cavity and core sides are the negative replicas of the molded components. Cavity and core shape the chamber were the plastic is injected. It is important to distinguish them by cavity being the fixed side and core moving side, in other words – cavity is shaping the outer part and the core – inner of the part. Heat Control System - Holes are drilled up in the block so that the temperature could be controlled with the help of circulating oil or water inside them. This cooling system helps to preheat the mold during the injection to prevent polymer clogging and cool down the mold to shorten the cycle of the molding. Polymer Flow (channel) System: The sprue - is the spot where plastic is injected through the nozzle. The runners (channels) – are the the channels where molten plastic flows. The gates – the entrance of the molten plastic to the empty chamber which is shaped by the cavity and the core inside the mold. Mold venting channels – are necessary for qualitative parts not to form air pockets or cause material burning due to high temperature and pressure. Cold slug wells – are the corners inside the runners to catch the cooled down plastic – the slug. Demolding System - Ejector plate or individual ejectors push solidified part out of the mold (demolding happens) which falls straight into the packing box or for futher processing - sprue cutting, quality inspection, sterilization, etc. Types of molds Even though all molds has the same basic structure and are very similar they can also be divided in several groups because of some differences and ways of use: 3 plate molds – are the tools that has additional plate between cavity and core plates. This allows multiple injection gates for better flow and more flexibility of gate location. Cold runner molds – as the name suggests these molds does not use hot runner nozzles and the plastic is injected through runners (channels) and gates. Hot runner molds – are the direct injection molds, where every cavity has its own nozzle and the plastic is injected directly to the cavity. Family molds are the ones which has multiple similar parts’ cavities located in a single mold. High cavitation molds – are the molds which has high quantity of cavities and are used of high volume production. Read more about types of molds here. How Is Injection Molding Tool Made? The main machining process for tooling is subtractive type of machining which are CNC machining, electrical discharge machining or even laser ablatios or selective laser etching for micron level precision machining. However, for inserts and in some cases additive manufacturing like 3D printing or electroforming also can be used. Also the technologies can be combined to achieved required result. It is important to consider the main parameters like size, shape, raw materials, product quantity, shrinkage of the plastic product, surface finishes, and cost restrictions before mold making. The process of mold making can be divided in few stages. 1. Design – CAD modeling Input information of part drawing and specifications of material, molding machine specifications, and other tool specifications such as type of mold, runner system, gate, use of robotics, and estimated cycle time are necessary when designing the mold. Mold designers must be experienced enough to take all these considerations and mold-making capability to produce the designed mold. Routine procedures can be automated, allowing conventional calculations on mold dimensions to be completed faster and with fewer errors and, at the same time, reducing modeling time. Mold-design software aims to free up the user's time to focus on the more challenging areas of mold planning while automating or easing typical or straightforward activities, which ultimately reduces modeling time, improves tool quality and efficiency, and lowers production costs. All things considered, a typical mold-design CAD package today includes programs or modules for generating core and cavity from a part model, which helps optimize parting surfaces, select a mold base, and add shutoffs, cooling lines, runner systems, gates, slides, lifters, ejectors, columns, spacers, guides, nozzles, screws, and pins. 2. Mold Simulation For achieving efficiency and decrease resetting time during mold testing, the simulation must be run while utilizing data from the injection molding machine's present state. In addition, the time it takes to design and manufacture a mold also determines the time for a product to reach the market. Fundamentally, continuous data input of machines for the mold-making process aids mold designers in gathering up-to-date information on machine conditions and adjusting design accordingly with the functionality and availability of machining machines to avoid production delays caused by a tool or machine failure during the mold making. The final mold design will serve as the mold's final model, virtually installed in an injection molding machine for future production planning and process simulation in real-time. The detailed drawing of the mold will be saved in the database once the mold design is completed, and mold making production facility will leverage the drawings for the mold-making process. Mold making primarily entails part machining, assembly, and testing. 3. Prototype Molds Then comes the stage of creating prototype molds, typically used to make small batches of plastic injection parts, ranging from 200 to several thousand. A standard interchangeable metal mold base, customized aluminum or soft steel alloy core, and chamber inserts make up this type of mold. 3D printing or CNC machining can be used to create prototype molds. 3D-Printed Injection Molds Previously, 3D printing was mainly utilized in the design and production process to build and test prototypes that would be injection molded later. However, 3D printers can now directly make molds, thanks to printer accuracy, surface polish, and materials advancements that can withstand high temperatures and forces. Aluminum micro molds Even though, as the name itself suggests, these molds has limits with only sma ll parts (usually up to 20cc in volume) for small parts it is truly great way to prototype and even enter mid-range production. The simplicity of micro molds structure and the size of the mold and molding machine allows much faster and cheaper tooling process which becomes acceptable for low-volume production and prototyping. Plastic Injection Mold (tool) Costs While injection molding might give off an impression of being more costly than methods like 3D printing and CNC machining, its ability to scale and manufacture thousands of pieces makes it a cost-effective mass production alternative. There are several factors to which contribute to mold (tool) making cost: Fixed time to start (setting up the CNC machine) Raw material cost (steel or aluminum) Hourly machine and operators rate Machine costs per hour (depreciation or/and leasing) CAD and CAM Fixed time per cavity machined (empirical estimation) Difficulty level (undercuts, threads, precision) Surface finish The CAD design is a critical factor of molding cost, and it indicates that the more complicated the part's geometry is, the greater the production costs will be. The most cost-effective parts will be those with no undercuts or less sophisticated surface finishes. Undercuts can make part ejection more difficult and glossy surface will require polishing. Although, many plastics are similar in strength and performance, some are intrinsically simpler to mold, eventually lowering part prices. Read an extensive in-depth explanation about injection molding costs here. How To Reduce Injection Molding Costs? Besides the necessary steps included in the whole process, a few features can significantly increase the plastic mold cost. Here are a few things that must be avoided: If possible, avoid the use of undercuts. Remove any features that are not necessary. Employ a core-cavity strategy. Minimise the number of cosmetic finishes and appearances. Create self-assembly components. Reuse and modify molds. Pay close attention to the DFM (design for manufacturing) evaluation. Use a family or multi-cavity mold. Select the option of on-demand production. Experiment with overmolding
- An Overview of Micro Mould Manufacturing
As micro injection molding continues to take a fair share of the manufacturing market, it becomes clear that micro mold manufacturing is a critical step to guarantee high-precision and high-quality results. The higher the precision and the quality of the micro mold manufacturing, the higher precision and quality you can get from micro injection molding. This guide covers all the details regarding the micro mold manufacturing process, how they are machined to the tightest tolerance possible for higher precision, what are the types of micro machining that can be applied, and the technologies behind the micro machining process. Table of contents What is micro machining? How are micro molds machined? Types of micro machining methods Non-mechanical methods Mechanical methods How to select the best alternative for micro mold manufacturing What is micro machining? Micro machining can be defined as the manufacturing process used to create 3D parts at a micro scale level. In other words, it means machining with tools with diameters that are smaller than 400 µm and can be as small as 1/3 the diameter of a human hair. Although it has existed since the late 1990s, the most recent developments in micro machining technology and tooling materials have made it possible to see machines with sufficient spindle speed and strong long-lasting cutting tools that can meet the repeatability and strength to run at high speeds as required for micro mold manufacturing. How micro molds are machined? When machining molds for micro injection molding, it is important to pay attention to three essential aspects: Part size Feature size Dimensional tolerances Another important aspect to keep in mind to obtain the best results when machining micro molds is that there is a direct relationship between the material of the mold, the cutting tools and the machining process itself, so making sure they are in synchrony is vital. Of course, there are several different micro machining processes, so it is necessary to select the most suitable option. Types of micro machining methods The types of micro machining methods for micro mold manufacturing can be classified into two categories: non-mechanical methods, and mechanical methods. Non-mechanical methods for micro mold manufacturing Non-mechanical methods for micro mold manufacturing include chemical processes such as wet and dry etching are more frequently used to produce molds for very specialized applications, especially within the optical and biology fields. However, the geometries that can be achieved with these processes are limited. On the other hand, among the non-mechanical methods for micro mold manufacturing, there is one that is worth highlighting: Micro EDM. Micro EDM for micro mold manufacturing EDM stands for Electrical Discharge Machining, so micro EDM is the process that applies traditional electrical discharge machining but at the micro scale level. Micro EDM is a great alternative for micro mold manufacturing because it allows the possibility of achieving both concave and convex microstructures, including the most complex 3D microstructures with high aspect ratio that may be required by several micro injection molding applications. Micro EDM consists in taking advantage of the erosive action of an electrical discharge between a conductive tool (electrode) and the workpiece to achieve material removal. This is normally done in one of two forms: The electrode is made to the desired shape of the cavity that is required. This electrode is then fed vertically over the workpiece, thus eroding the reverse shape into it. Using a very thin wire electrode with a diameter within the micro scale, the desired shape is eroded as the electrode follows the path that has been programmed into the special CNC machine. When using micro EDM for micro mold manufacturing, there are three factors that need to be taken into account in order to achieve the best performance. These factors are: Melting point of the materials Thermal conductivity of the materials Electrical conductivity of the materials According to an experimental study on impulse discharge machinability performed in 2018 by Quanpeng He, Jin Xie, Ruibin Guo, Peixin Ma and Yanjun Lu, “A low melting point and electrical conductivity result in a good micro-machined shape with a low relative wear rate. High electrical conductivity and a low melting point produce low surface roughness, high micro-removal rate, and high discharge energy efficiency. Low thermal conductivity leads to a high aspect ratio and low micro-removal rate”. Micro EDM technology for micro mold manufacturing Micro EDM technology has been widely developed, and the options for micro mold manufacturing include highly capable micro EDM machining centers that feature: Twin axis processing. Combining processes such as Micro EDM Drilling, Micro EDM Sinking, Wire EDM Electrode grinding, and 3D Micro EDM Milling. Tools integration. 8-axis control. Possibility to change between electrodes with different diameters Mechanical methods for micro mold manufacturing While micro EDM is definitely a very cost-effective process that can achieve micro mold manufacturing with high quality and precision, there are some micro injection molding applications that require molds with even more geometric freedom and lower surface roughness. And here is where the mechanical methods for micro mold manufacturing excel. The main idea of using mechanical methods for micro mold manufacturing is taking advantage of the most modern tooling developments for micro machining which use diamond to achieve surfaces with precision to the micro scale level without the need for post processing. Of course, this type of high precision machining can only be possible thanks to the current CNC technologies, which allow experience manufactures to produce microfeatures as precise that can be measured to values below the 5µm. An important achievement of these technologies is the high speed the spindle can reach, which allows to avoid chip build up and heat concentration in micro machining applications. Among the most common CNC high precision processes applied for micro mold manufacturing there are micro turning, micro milling, and micro grinding. And these three are usually performed in combination to achieve the desired results. Micro machining technology for micro mold manufacturing The most common micro machining technology used in the present for micro mold manufacturing is high-speed micro milling. In micro milling processes, normally a diamond tool rotates on a spindle and moves along the surface of the fixed workpiece. During milling operations, the tool rotates along the axis perpendicular to the workpiece. At least three numerically controlled axes are used in this process. Common factors that affect the efficiency and the quality of high-speed micro milling for micro mold manufacturing include: The corner radius of the milling tool. Optimization of the tool path. Tool wear. Angle of the cutter axis. This should always have an inclination to avoid a cutting point with a speed value of 0. Of course, there are other technologies that can be used such as single-point diamond turning, fly cutting, and vibration assisted cutting technologies. However, they are mostly used for highly specialized applications such as optics. How to select the best alternative for micro mold manufacturing For a micro injection molding manufacturer to select the best alternative among the available processes for micro mold manufacturing, it is necessary to consider the specific requirements of the part that will be molded and possible constraints, costs, the number of times the mold will be used (durability or life span), and geometrical complexity. For example, when it comes to costs, a higher removal rate increases production rate and a higher degree of automation reduces labor costs. So, the production rate of the manufacturing process and the degree of automation it requires will be critical factors to analyze. Regarding the mold durability, it usually depends on the material and how it resists high-temperature and high-pressure cycles. For example, aluminum molds may last up to 200 cycles while being made two times faster and cheaper than steel molds. When it comes to geometrical complexity, the higher the complexity the lower the micro milling machinability, so other methods like micro EDM may be required. There are some studies that have provided good information such as tables for complexity index, and a set of rules to select between micro milling machining and micro EDM. However, it is important to remember that they are not completely infallible. Based on all these factors, making the best selection usually requires a certain degree of expertise. Many times, the best solution is to combine both micro milling with micro EDM to obtain the micro mold manufacturing result needed for the micro injection molding application, but this should only be used when the increased cost and extra processing time is justified. Conclusion As a conclusion, the best course of action when deciding between high-speed micro machining and micro EDM to obtain the most suitable mold for the micro injection molding application in hand is to leave it in the hands of an expert.
- Injection Moulded Plastic Chips for Droplet Microfluidics
Droplet microfluidics is a recent trend of laboratory automation technologies, which allow scientists to explore the biological world at an unprecedented resolution and throughput. The new infrastructure is powered by innovative instrumentation, software as well as the consumable reagents and chips. In this context, plastic chips play a key role in enabling these applications, as they ensure a consistent and scalable droplet production. What are the microfluidic chips? At the foundations of droplet microfluidics are the chips used for high-speed droplet generation, injection, splitting, merging, mixing and storing. However, specialist injection moulding knowledge is required for producing chip features with micrometer resolution. Material science expertise is equally important as chosen plastics need to be compatible with fluorinated oils and biological analysis workflows. Finally, mechanical design is also important, as plastic chips feature a combination of microscopic features defining microfluidic functions, in addition to the macroscopic chip features like snap fits for assembly and liquid containers (wells). High volume chips’ molding When microfluidic channels are tested and confirmed for the desired research objective, higher volume of the chips may be demanded and this is where Micromolds company with micro injection moulding steps in. Not only does injection moulding come handy because of its high productivity but also because it enables the possibility to make non-micro structures – like the reservoirs, wells, inlet and outlet gates together with micro geometries in one single moldable piece. However, this comes at a certain cost which is challenging for any injection molding professional. Tooling challenges When things get really small, regular machining might not be an option even though theoretical machine and tool precision would let do so. For such micro tools we had to use tool inserts that are located inside the mold base. Since the high plastic injection pressures forces are exerted inside the mold cavity and core, we had to experiment a lot with different machining options of those inserts – from laser ablation to multiphoton polymerization. Manufacturing the insert is just one side of a coin, the most challenging task was to locate the insert inside the mold base so that alignment of the core and cavity would be perfect and the clamping forces would not brake the inserts. Injection Challenges Extremely flat surface of the chip was needed to make micro geometries possible. This meant that any sink marks caused by the uneven wall thickness had to be solved. However, we could not make walls thinner than the smallest ejectors we had since this would have caused us demolding problems. In fact, it did. At the first trials the ejectors were too weak and started to bend. As a way out we had to play with injection parameters to reduce the sink marks to the minimum so the wall thickness could remain unchanged and thus thicker ejectors could be used. The results We are excited to participate in the development and production of droplet microfluidic tools for the life science sector. We constantly grow with our customers by pushing together on the technical limits of plastic chip designs and enabling new applications, which finally contribute to modern biological research and human health.
- How Micromolds help Teltonika save time and costs when launching new products
1300 employees, 18 countries, 27 offices, This is how big Teltonika IoT Group is. The IoT group subsumes 5 subsidiary companies working in: Telematics (tracking hardware), Networks (professional networking equipment), Mobility (personal tracking, asset tracking and electric mobility) telemedicine (pulmonary ventilator and other healthcare devices) and EMS (manufacturing). The product Teltonika Telemedic almost two years ago initiated an innovative smart watch development project in the telemedicine industry. Teltonika Telemedic developed a device that can detect continuous ECG levels and atrial fibrillation. A smartwatch now undergoes the final technical checks and certification procedures. Clinical trials were carried out which delivered extraordinary results demonstrating high accuracy of ECG recording – 99,2% compared with in-hospital ECG holters. It indicates high precision to distinguish atrial fibrillation from other arrhythmias reaching 99,1 %, tested with more than 30 % of patients with frequent arrhythmias symptoms. The use of PPG in continuous monitoring of heart activity will allow detecting irregular heart rate in a timely manner even if there are no symptoms felt by the user. Thus, the smartwatch would detect asymptotic atrial fibrillation and prevent heart diseases if patients are diagnosed as early as possible. The design form molding To fit all of these technological features into a usual every-day smartwatch is quite a challenge both for designers and manufacturers. “The conception of design is not a job that takes one day or a month to complete. It is way more than you can think of. It took us nearly half a year to develop the design that it is right now. We put a lot of thought into producing a unique design which would be intuitive to use.” – says Eimantas Ramunis, Product Owner at Teltonika Telemedic. Many smartwatches in medical and consumer markets were compared and analysed, the flaws were determined to outperform competitors and stand out of the crowd. Teltonika design team came up with nearly five different designs. Thus, not surprisingly, it was even more difficult for the whole team to choose the best one not only from the design point of view but also from manufacturing. The plastic case A good designer knows that what looks and feels good does not always work out with technological aspects and might cause problems with manufacturability. To speak numbers – the watch will have six sensors contacting with human. From the manufacturability side, it means making slots, holes, fixtures and complex shapes to integrate all of the technology. Since the only option for making this product tangible is injection molding it also means that variety of inserts will be used to form these complex features and that the moldability optimization also should be implemented. Micromolds℠ is driven by such challenges daily and that is what we love about on-demand molding business. We are proud to be chosen to fulfil “TeltoHeart” smartwatch prototyping phase needs from design optimization and consultation to actual physical prototypes. “The company was contacted due to their flexibility and short lead times, also because their other manufactured products proved to be high-quality. We need a flexible and reliable partner that can produce on-demand quantities. They are the perfect partner as they own the injectors that warrant our initial quantities.”– says Eimantas Ramunis, Product Owner at Teltonika Telemedic. Mold inserts made with metal 3D printers The watch strap had to be mounted to the plastic case at a particular angle which made mold machining nearly impossible. Luckily, metal 3D printing technology could be used for that. Metal 3D printing technology is based on laser power which binds small metal particles in requires geometry. Layer by layer 3D printer made the inserts which were successfully installed inside the molds. Not only have 3D printed inserts been used but also the sensors and metal connectors made and designed by Teltonika Telemedic team. It was quite a challenge to fit them all in such a tiny plastic case which meant placing every insert inside the mold at specific positions with an extra high precision to avoid any defects like flashes or unwanted weld lines. The overmolded elastomeric watch strap Rubber, silicone and elastomer – all three different chemical materials but very similar for a regular user. When looking for material for a watch strap two main challenges arise immediately. The first being the resistance to wear and the second being the tackiness. Not only the material will have to maintain its form while being twisted, bended and stretched but also not to collect dust and feel comfortable. “Originally, we wanted to explore ideas using silicon bands, but silicon does not provide the durability and properties that are offered by TPUs” – says Jostautas Petrusevičius, Hardware Engineer at Teltonika Telemedic. Huge amount of TPEs’ combinations was tried to obtain the desired feel on the skin. The strap also had to be hypoallergenic and withstand sterilization even with corrosive liquids like isopropyl alcohol. When it seemed that the right material has been found there were always one more thing to remember - “TeltoHeart” smartwatch strap will have an integrated sensor. Such integration is one of its kind in the whole smartwatch industry and this is one of the reasons why Teltonika Telemedic team has also consulted with our company. Such feature demanded an extraordinary technology. How to insert such a sensor in a flexible elastomer strap which would resist fatigue and other environmental harsh conditions over time. Elastomer overmolding came as perfect solution. While overmolding itself is not something new we have been doing, in this case we had to overmold the flexible (floating) wire inside the strap. Even though injection pressures are not high but it can still deflect the wire inside the strap which would result in wire being not fully overmolded. Despite this difficult challenge our team succeeded in a uniform wire overmolding. The results “We are really satisfied with Micromolds ℠ services. The company offered fast and responsive technical support. It helped us to save time and expenses on expensive tooling for mass production. We could see and test possible problems before mass production and eliminate them.”– Eimantas Ramunis, Product Owner at Teltonika Telemedic. The quote above summarizes it all. We are so happy to share this story which once again proves that our hard work pays off. We can deliver results and we truly help companies to innovate and this is the biggest reward we can get.
- Injection molding of an AirTag Holder – plastic case with overmolded bushing inserts.
SUSHI Bikes GmbH It is not the sushi you may instantly think of. It is an e-bike that was developed and designed to cut an average e-bike cost by half - to just 999EUR. SUSHI bikes is a young growing start-up company disrupting e-bikes industry by taking not only a green approach to the mobility and the future but also to the manufacturing and sourcing of the bike’s components. How otherwise they could cut those costs so considerably without losing bikes’ quality? Since here at Micromolds not only do we cut molding costs twice too but we also help companies to fill the market gaps caused by demand fluctuations and bridge manufacturing from low to medium size production. We believe that our cooperation with SUSHI bikes very much relates with their overall objectives. This time we helped this company to develop and manufacture an AirTag holder which can be easily attached underneath the saddle. Design for manufacturing (DFM) As every molding project begins with DFM this was no different and we immediately started moldability analysis and part optimization for injection molding. Mainly we did these changes: 1. Draft angles have been added to the parts. 2. Some areas have been hollowed out to make walls of uniform thickness. This was done to prevent certain areas from sink marks, voids and distortions. Nevertheless, there were still remaining some places where we could not make a uniform wall thickness without changing the part’s geometry. So, we ran a moldability analysis and images were provided to see which places might be at risk of having those defects. 3. Logo has been extruded out instead of cut out to enable surface finish on flat surfaces. 4. Some walls have been pushed inside 0.5mm because of impossible mold construction. 5. Some fillets were removed around the round surface because of impossible mold machining. 6. Visuals were provided to depict: parting line, injection points and locations of ejectors. Overcoming the sink marks Thanks to our smooth communication with the SUSHI bikes’ mechanical engineer Max, we had an opportunity to exchange our know-how and thus we came up with a slight design changes to reduce those sink marks marked in red. The hollowing of thick wall region was a great balance for not losing a contact surface area in the assembly but also decreasing a sink region considerably. Mold making It took us exactly 8 days to machine the molds after the DFM was confirmed. We used aluminium molds for this low-volume production batches. Polishing was required of outer plastic casing surfaces, however, machining marks were left for the inside. Both sides of the plastic AirTag holder fit in two separate micro molds having single cavity each. Overmolding (insert molding) reduced assembly time (for pressing bushings) When we were asked to also do the assembly of the plastic housing we were thinking of using a press to tight-fit the bushings. However, only after several days, still in the initial stages of the project we agreed that overmolding will be more effective solution. We had to do slight modifications to the mold during the DFM but therefore we could save assembly costs and time considerably. Injection molding, the assembly and packing We were happy that we could provide end-to-end service for our client. After samples were confirmed we finished the first batch of 1000 units in a few days. We did the manual assembly of the whole batch. We also stuck EAN code labels to the packing boxes that were provided by the client and successfully delivered project on time. In the end, What does this really have to do with the Japanese speciality - sushi? “One rolls, the other are Rolls. So who doesn't immediately think of SUSHI when they think of e-bikes?” - SUSHI Bikes - this is how we roll.
- MFI Medical Industrial Uses Micromolding for Electrode Plasitc Housings
Medical Injection Molding Project MFI (Medical, Industrial) provides design, engineering and production services in Medical and Industrial fields covering high-end on-demand manufactured cables and wires. The company specializes in custom wire harness, assembly of connectors, EEG caps, cable design, soldering fine wires and much more. MFI is a company that has a 15 years of expertise in the medical and industrial fields. MFI has established its name in custom-made wires, electrodes, and similar products categories. MFI has a dedicated team of engineers who are experts in 3D modelling, mechanical engineering, prototyping, and manufacturing. All this is for the creation of a reliable connection for the client. Subcontracting Molding Service When it comes to subcontracting with other manufacturing companies there is always some curiousity to find out something similar between the partners. We were glad when we knew that we have much in common with cable overmolding - even though Micromolds company specializes in micromolding technology, we have had some cable overmolding projects in the past as well. Maybe this much related subject helped as to bond and develop a stronger partnership with other projects to come in the future. Receiving an RFQ This cooperation itself was about injection moulding of a plastic housing for the electrode. As soon as we received the RFQ we understood that this is something we can surely do without much competition, because we could check-mark all of the below: The part was small enough so we could make even 8 or 16 cavities in a single micro mould; The manufacturing volume was up to 100k; It had some micro-features achievable only with micro moulding technology Urgency - the project had to be done in few weeks and it needed rapid prototypes We had in stock medical grade ABS material. The product was an ideal for our micromolding technology and thus we felt quite sure that we can give a competitive offer for the client. DFM analysis and part optimisation for moulding After the order confirmation, as always the DFM followed. Since the contracting company was a manufacturer and had a strong engineering knowledge itself, the quality of the CAD model was superb. As well as the RFQ received itself. “This is what we call a qualitative RFQ that helps to save time for both of the client and the manufacturer” – says CEO Jonas We had only to add some draft angles for some regions and also agree on injection points and ejector marks. The process was fast and smooth and thus we transitioned to the tooling stage in about 3 days. The Tooling – Mold Making We used aluminium micro molds with 4 cavities. No EDM machining was required. We had molds ready in less than 1 week for sample molding. Sample Check T1 When we mold the samples we are the first ones that can inspect them and tell the quality of the work done. As always, we are honest and transparent with the client and if needed we share optical images or videos of the defects occurred. However, the defects can be of 2 types: caused by the moulder (us) or by the client – design of the part. In this case when we received the first feedback there could be controversial opinions: the broken wall could have occurred due to the wrong knit line location (bad part optimisation – our responsibility) or bad design (client’s responsibility). Thanks to the expertise of both the client’s and ours engineers we could nicely agree that this was not an issue of a knit line which was not possible in this situation, as seen in the picture. Both parties could agree that the wall should be thickened and thus the solution to the challenge came quickly. As the CEO of MFI Ronald de Vreeze would say: “We have a solution for just about every challenge – be that specialist customization in single pieces or large volumes…” When it comes to the mold modification due to the subtractive type of CNC machining we can only carve out the material from the mould but not add it back. Since the wall had to be thickened the modification was a minor change and we did it in few days. The results Since the changes were obvious and minor the client decided to avoid the sample check T2 and we went straight to manufacturing of the first batch. Even though we had some little anxiety after we had sent the first batch we received another order for batch 2 and the anxiety dissipated instantly as the results were satisfying. Not only did we succeed in this single project but we have also built a strong partnership with a MFI company – we are having next 2 projects to come and we take this as prove that we did a truly great job.
- Medical Device Moulding – A Test Tube with Moving Components and Membrane Cap
Disclaimer: the lower part of the tube and its components will remain not disclosed due to confidentiality issues. Summary: Goal: Rapid injection molded prototypes for innovative medical test tubes to fight Covid-19 pandemic. Procedure: Test tube’s membrane cap design optimization for molding Test tube’s inner components: valve and hammer design consultancy and DFM CNC machining 3 aluminium tools for low-volume injection molding in less than 3 weeks. Molding first samples Result: First prototypes delivered for robot assembly testing in less than 2 months with design changes and consultancy included under 10 000 EUR which could be up to 2 times cheaper and faster than with traditional molding. Swissinnov GmbH is a medical products developing company which has set its main goal as to transform creative thoughts into the real products. Swissinnov believes that talents and ideas are the core assets of organizations which strive to venture into new businesses to obtain new customers and to differentiate itself from its competitors. To help such organizations Swissinnov offers a global perspective of product development and the capacity to completely foster their businesses at various levels. When Swissinnov first contacted Micromolds it was instantly clear that the RFQ received was of a high quality and that the company knows how to work with injection molders. “When you get an email with a subject name ‘rapid mold’ you immediately feel the pressure from the client but also know that this is exactly what we can offer” – says Dominykas Turčinskas, CCO at Micromolds Part Design for Molding The goal of this project was to develop a medical test tube which would have an inner moving components and membrane cap. For this reason, the test tube is not just a test tube – it becomes an actual medical device with certain requirements: · Material: PP highly transparent (PP copolymer) · Design constraints: Thin wall 0.1 mm-0.6mm · Surface finish: high polished · Device has to stay in storage for 12 months · Sealing has to insure 100% tightness during storage (5 to 40°C) · Low friction to operate valve during operation · Parts will contain disposable unit It took us total of 6 iterations of major design changes to come up with a final V6 design of a whole device. It is essential that on such high value and time-sensitive projects both parties would sustain tight and quick communication. We are proud that the machining of the molds started in 4 weeks which shows an outstanding speed to confirm and agree on a total of 6 versions of design variations. Design for Manufacturability (DFM) The main challenge in design stage is to balance between the functionality and manufacturability of the product. To achieve this balance, it is essential that the product developers would share the most of information they can so that know-how of injection molding could be implemented in the project objectives. In this way both parties can come up with a new design variation that previously could not be even imagined. Material Selection and Tooling Material selection and sourcing in a medical device development projects plays also a critical role. Not only had the design requirements to be met but also the documentation of material sourcing and supplying had to be prepared and submitted. This includes: · HRAF form · Medical Polymers Request form · Customer agreement letter · Statement of Medical Compliance As Micromolds has its material supplying partners and experience in filing the documentation it was a huge help and time saver for the client. Results The tube and the remaining 2 components were produced in separate 3 aluminium molds. We used our CNC mills and aluminum material to machine the tools as this allows us to achieve short lead times and low-cost machining. The most important advantage is that all the components and the tube itself fit in our micromolding machine and micro molds. This allows us to cut the costs even more. The tooling stage for all 3 molds in total took us 3 weeks not to mention highly polished mold surfaces. The cost of these molds settled around 10 000EUR in total with modifications included which is no less than twice cheaper than traditional molding. We are so proud that we can deliver such results for our highly valuable clients.
- Biodegradable Boule de Ferlette for MyCourant
We are proud to share that our most recent micro injection molding project has allowed us to put our passions for challenges and sustainability in one place by collaborating with innovation and environmental friendly company. However, as nothing good comes easy, this project brought us to a great challenge which will soon be introduced further. About our client Since 1825, MyCourant is a rope and rope accessories manufacturer located in France. Courant is a vertical living and safety brand name well-known worldwide. This is a family business where the know-how was accumulated through almost 200 years and was conveyed and developed from generation to generation. The innovation lies deep in the roots of this company and this project is not an exception. Main Challenges: Design and Sustainability This time MyCourant team was developing a new “Boule de Ferlette” for recall ropes. It is a ball that is placed in the end of the recall rope for the recovery of false ring fork. This ball is useful during pruning work and can be used even if the rope does not have a splice. In order to have a better picture of how the "Boule de Ferlette" will look like after the process of injection molding, the first 3D printed prototype was created. However, the initial solution of a wooden anchor with a special surface treatment appeared to have serious drawbacks. The surface treatment was mainly used for better wear resistance and brighter colors, but this made the ball a non-ecological product and too simple in its shape. Basically, it did not represent the company as needed as it had not aligned with one of the main values - sustainability. “in order to have reasonable costs, we could not do what we wanted in terms of shape since the machining of a product would be complicated but the worse was that it deteriorated quickly, and we had long production times”, - stated the R&D designer Mr. Laurent Glauser. The new approach: Biodegradability and Design for Manufacturability The new design was based on biomimicry and thus, aligns better with the company’s values. Mr. Laurent has worked hardly on a new design to make the product similar to the acorn and manufacturable. Mr. Laurent has previously stated that: “The product should not get stuck through foliage or branches and therefore should be profiled.” The ball had additional design constrains – the strong construction which would be able to withstand at least 200 Kg and ecological materials used, as Mr. Laurent has stated: “Biodegradability is important since the future is green and ecology is a subject close to our hearts and to our customers”. Low-Volume Manufacturing: Micro Injection Molding Right after the new designs were developed, tests were made on ground with professional users and stress tests were conducted with a test bench on 3D printed models. When stress analysis was passed, Mycourant team contacted Micromolds company for the service of injection molding. Since Micromolds company specializes in low-volume manufacturing and micro injection molding, the “Boule de Ferlette” project was a well targeted RFQ. The quote with moldability analysis was sent through 1 business day and the new issue arose: making the design of a ball compatible with injection molding technology. Challenge No.1 - Undercut Regions The ball had many undercut regions. This might happen with the new projects and sometimes it is worth to remember, that not everything that is visually attractive can be manufactured. The rope that was winded around the ball had to be shifted to avoid undercuts. Micromolds came up with 3 new design solutions. Challenge No. 2 - Sink Marks Since the ball had thick wall regions, there was a considerable risk of material cooling issues which would cause sink marks to achieve better strength. In injection molding, thick walls do not always mean strong walls. Sinking can cause serious problems and can hugely reduce the strength of the part. Engineers and designers had to agree on where exactly and which walls can be thinner as well as what hollowing options were possible to maintain a good appearance of the product. Challenge No. 3 - Mold Modification After the first sample check and tests, MyCourant company came up with a complicated modification in mind. When it comes to modification in injection molding, the possibilities are bounded by the exact location and type of the modification in the mold. Since the tooling process is done by the means of material subtraction – CNC machined, this means that the processes cannot be rewinded. In simple terms - the metal chips cannot be glued back to the mold. So, if the modification takes place in the cavity side, enlarging the wall, for example, may be possible because the mold can still be machined. However, if thicker wall is needed in the core side, this might become impossible, since there might be no material left to machine. In this case, modification happened to not be in favor for the Courant company. Micromolds loves challenges and took risk by trying to do the impossible. It would actually not be possible to put those machined chips back, though machining a little ‘puzzle’ part that could be glued or screwed inside the core side of the mold might seem as a way out. This solution can work in rare cases and is purely dependent on the luck – where the modification takes place. The way around this problem was smooth – the mold was modified and the production was launched. Results: Final Injection Molded Products and Smooth Collaboration The cooperation with MyCourant company was smooth and satisfying. Brilliant and fast communication laid a strong foundation for trust between both companies. Altough the project has had many challenges and has taken a long time to be finished, both parties are equally satisfied with the results. Mr. Laurent’s feedback illustrates this nicely: “We are happy with the result and the quality of the parts obtained, with a biodegradable and compostable material, still young on the market. In addition, Micromolds provided an excellent service and cost-saving advices.”
- Signed Sponsorship Agreement with Vilnius-Lithuania iGEM 2020 Team
The iGEM (International Genetically Engineered Machine Competition) is the largest annual international competition in synthetic biology. Teams from best world universities competes here with their researches and scientifically based projects which solve actual world problems. We are proud to be part of Vilnius-Lithuania iGEM 2020 team helping them out with our mechanical engineering skills and knowledge. The Vilnius-Lithuania iGEM 2020 team project focuses on a critical issue in the food industry and aquaculture - infectious diseases in fish, which in turn wipes off more than $ 6 billion annually in fish farming industry (World Bank, 2014). While Earth resources are scare, the growing human population is leading to a growing demand for them, thus ability to effectively and sustainably produce high levels of food is becoming more an more relevant issue. The presumption of this project is that identified appropriate mechanisms for disease prevention, detection and treatment will greatly reduce production losses caused by these infectious pathogens and will eliminate the use of antibiotics in fish farms. Vilnius-Lithuania iGEM 2020 project consists of three main parts: Early detection of exogenous bacterial diseases by the use of strip test; Treatment based on the action of exolysins; Prevention based on the development of proteins immobilized in alginate beads for vaccination. As it can be easily guessed "Micromolds" team will mainly contribute in the first part of this huge project. We are really proud to be part of Vilnius-Lithuania iGEM 2020 team helping to design and manufacture strip testing device to indicate infectious bacteria in fish farms. However, it is not our first time we participate in collaborations with Vilnius University. Our task is to design 3D model of strip test which could be later on manufactured with 3D printing technology FDM. This will be only a prototype to demonstrate the testing procedure on fish farm site. The main design constrains we have discussed for this strip test device are: Material must be suitable for FDM 3D printing; Sample well should have converging form for sample liquid to freely drain inside; The housing should have transparent section for test and control lines indication; Fixation at points of membranes should be minimal not to interfere diffusion; Strip test device should be reusable with one-time use strips; Dimensions: height: 4 mm; length: 70 mm; width: 10 mm. This project is still in process and will be updated. ...
- 3D Printed Head Frame for Stereotactic Surgery
Another project another innovation? We are always glad to apply and share our manufacturing knowledge and experience with innovating companies of any kind. Not only companies, though. At MicromoldsTM we take social responsibility seriously and this project proves us not being just talkers but also doers. Neurosurgeries and manufacturing? Together with the students from Vilnius University (VU) and the neurologists of Vilnius University “Santaros” Clinics we have designed and manufactured a head frame which is used as a locator device for fixing stereotactic arc position. Stereotactic arc is a clinical instrument that allows surgeons to detect and apply the desired trajectory for a stereotactic intervention. Stereotactic (or stereotaxic) interventions, theoretically, are supposed to be performed for treatments of any organ system inside a human body. However, these have only been applied in neurosurgeries (performed on brain) so far yet. What is also worth mentioning is that neurology is quite a new discipline as a field of health sciences. Data about the first use of stereotaxic devices on humans were published in 1933. Since then, the tools of neurosurgical operations were being developed and currently stereotaxic intervention treatments may be applicable for various neurological diseases: from Parkinson’s disease to even cancer (for performing stereotaxic radiosurgeries). Ideas born from problems? The main idea of this project, was to propose a new, reliable and comfortable device to position stereotactic arc more precisely. It was born because of the need of solution for the constantly arising arc positioning problem during the surgical interventions while using stereotactic arcs. In fact, during the surgeries, it is highly possible that any unconscious movements of the patient's head might occur and the consequences of these involuntary actions might be tragic. Before the head frame idea came as a solution, someone had always had to hold the head of the patient steadily and upright while the neurologist was trying to screw the arc to the skull bone. The process was extremely inconvenient and risky. Let us offer a solution Our 3D Printed Head Frame now can be used by surgeons to pre-position the stereotactic arc by attaching it to the frame by using pins and screws. Thus, the preparation and process of a surgical intervention have become more convenient and reliable, since the head, frame and arc can be locked together in one immobile system. No assistance would be needed anymore and the positioning error of a stereotactic arc can be minimized. Head stable while head frame sustainable? For frame prototype manufacturing we used PLA (thermoplastic polyester) - plastic suitable for additive manufacturing FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling). PLA is currently one of the mostly used polyesters in 3D printing. This thermoplastic polyester is considered to be a bioplastic material, since it is sourced from renewable resources rather than from fossil fuels. Also, it may be easily recycled (since PLA has an SPI code 7), incinerated in an economical way (with leaving no residuals and producing a significant amount of energy) or composted till ultimate degradation. And these features of PLA are what makes our 3D printed head frame for stereotactic surgery environmental-friendly. We continuously strive to reduce waste and create sustainable solutions in our projects, while designing and producing economical products from as much renewable and recyclable materials as possible. Not to mention that we are manufacturers on demand. Not to mention that all of our plastic injection molding processes as such are being optimized to save resources and minimize plastic waste. Applying our 3D printing experience The main corpus of the head frame was 3D printed. The following processes were drilling the holes for bushings. Holes were used for placing manually controlled actuators to enable custom positioning configurations for different head sizes and forms. Furthermore, the knobs and fixation pads of the actuators were 3D printed. The assembled final prototype can be seen below in the picture. Job worth doing is worth doing together Our team is happy to collaborate with professionals of the healthcare industry. Not only is exchanging ideas exciting and rewarding, but also turning them into reality and practice is as well. We are highly grateful for an opportunity to contribute to the future of the neurosurgeries and to the future of medicine as a whole. We care about innovation because we believe that this is what drives our future and that is why we have contributed to this project. We are always looking forward to work on scientifically based innovations which would help the experts of their fields to do their job more easily and provide more advanced services and products. Eyes on the prize! There is nothing more exciting to us than to put our efforts on creating something new and helping others. Our team is ambition-driven and we are pushing ourselves towards fulfilling our common mission and achieving our future goals every day.
- Injection Molded Kitchen Cabin Spacer
"Reform" is a Danish modern furniture company designing and manufacturing smart carpentry kitchens. Most of their production is custom-made and sold worldwide in more than 30 countries. The word 'custom' immediately implies that low-volume and fast manufacturing may be the key to a successful work flow. To react fast to the market needs and remain resilient manufacturing partner may be the perfect solution. ''Reform'' and ''Micromolds'' partnership has lessen the risks occurring from changes in the market by supplying on-demand made plastic kitchen cabin spacers. The Design In this case we were able to deliver first batch of spacers in 2 weeks. We used CNC machine for milling aluminium moulds for injection molding. EDM was used for surface finish and logo engraving in the mold. For spacer's manufacturing we used ABS thermoplastic material.